History of sustainability

The emergence of the concept of sustainable development ws long, leaning on numerous international agreements; the idea of development wich can at the same time reduce the social disparities and reduce the pressure on the environment is now present in our life. Let`s see the important moments of the emergence of this concept:

- 1960: The international community becomes aware of the necessity of privileging a new mode of more respectful development of the man and its environment

- 1968: creation of the Club of Rome grouping some personalities occupying relatively important posts in their countries and wishing that the research seizes the problem of the evolution of the world taken in its global nature to try to determine the limits of the growth.

- 1972: The Club of Rome publishes the report The limits to growth drafted in his demand by a research team of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This first report gives the results of computing simulations about the evolution of the human population according to the exploitation of natural resources, with projections until 2100. It emerges from it that the pursuit of the economic growth will cause during the XXIth century a rough fall of the populations because of the pollution, of the impoverishment of the cultivable grounds and the rarefaction of energy resources.

- 1972 (5 on June 16th): a conference of United Nations on the human environment in Stockholm explains the ecodevelopment, the interactions between ecology and economy, the development of the countries of the South and the North. It is the first Summit of the Earth. It is a relative failure, with no clear compromise, but since that day the problem was more clear: the environment appears as a world precious heritage  we must preserve for us and for the future generations. 

- 1980: The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)  publishes an entitled report "The world strategy for the conservation" where appears for the first time the notion of "sustainable development".

- 1987: A definition of the sustainable development is proposed by World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland). The protocol of Montreal concerning substances which impoverish the ozone layer is signed on September 16th, sign that a collective commitment is possible.

- 1992 (3 on June 14th): the Second Summit of the Earth, in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Consecration of the term "sustainable development", the concept begins to be widely mediatized in front of the general public. Adoption of the agreement of Rio and birth of the Diary 21. The definition Brundtland, centred firstly on the environmental protection and the careful consumption of the not renewable natural resources, will be modified by the definition of " three pillars " which must be associate in a perspective of sustainable development: the economic progress, the social justice, and the environmental protection.


The three pilliards of sustainablity 

fig: Scheme of sustainable development: at the confluence of three constituent parts.

- 1997 (1st on December 12th): 3rd Conference of United Nations on climate change, in Kyoto, during whom will be established the "Protocol of Kyoto".

fig: Kyoto Protocol participation map 2005

- 2001: The European strategy of sustainable development completes the political commitment of the Union towards an economic and social revival articulates around 4 environmental subjects: fight against the climate change, assure ecologically viable transport, limit the risks for the public health, manage the resources in a responsible way.

- 2002 (in August 26th on September 4th): summit of Johannesburg: in September, renew the commitment for the principles of Rio and makes the report of an escalation of the environmental and human situation, in particular for developing countries. Reaffirm the necessity of a mobilization at every level, particularly at the level of communities. More than hundred heads of state, several tens of thousand governmental representatives and the NGO ratify a treaty taking position on the preservation(conservation) of natural resources and biodiversity. Some big French companies are present. 

- 2005: application of the Kyoto protocol on the reduction of the broadcasts(emissions,issues) of greenhouse gases.

Make a free website with emyspot.com - Report abuse